If you have children and are going through divorce, there are many things you also need to consider for your taxes. The IRS allows the custodial parent of the child(ren) to claim them as dependent(s). The custodial parent is defined as the parent the child lives with for at least half the year. A child is defined as either a daughter, son, stepchild, foster child, sibling, step sibling, or a half sibling. The child must be under the age of 19, or under 24 if a student.
It’s important to know who can claim dependents as it will affect other tax credits. For example, if you’re the custodial parent you may be able to claim the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) as well as the credit for Child and Dependent Care Expenses. If you’re not the custodial parent, you cannot claim either.
Non-custodial parents can only claim dependent children if the custodial parent signs an IRS Form 8332, which is the Release/Revocation of Release of Claim to Exemption for Child by Custodial Parent form. The release can be specified to apply for one year, a specific number of years, alternating years, or all future years. The release may be revoked in the future by filling out Part III of Form 8332. When revoking the claim, both parents need to attach Form 8332 to their tax return.
Otherwise, only the noncustodial parent attaches IRS Form 8332 to his or her tax return.
Finally, there might be a big benefit for divorced parents with dependents resulting from the recent COVID-19 Economic Impact Payment (EIP) program or payments. Depending on the situation, additional EIP money may be available to a custodial parent, even if the other parent received the initial payment from IRS estimates. If the parents of a child rotate claiming the dependent each year, it is possible for parent A to get the $500 stimulus payment from the 2019 tax return and parent B to get the $500 stimulus payment when they file claiming the child on the 2020 return.
Alimony & Child Support
One of the biggest changes from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or 2017 tax reform bill, was how alimony is treated on the tax return. Alimony payments are not automatic and must be defined in a divorce agreement. Alimony, or spousal support, payments are considered income to the recipient and a deduction to the payer for agreements entered prior to 2019. Payments based on agreements entered, or with certain modifications made after, 2018 do not require the recipient to report the income nor does it allow the payer to deduct the income.
The IRS defines alimony payments as cash payments and must be specifically stated as alimony or spousal support in a divorce or separation agreement.
Child support has never been tax deductible and the recipient doesn’t pay income tax on the payment. Child support is meant to benefit children and is known as a tax-neutral exchange of money.
- Home sales
- Asset transfers
- Legal fees & Divorce costs
Divorced couples often sell their home, either because they couldn’t agree who should keep it or it’s not a good financial decision to otherwise hold on to it anymore. If the home sells for a profit, it will likely have implications for both your taxes because it’s a capital gain. But many divorced couples qualify for a partial exclusion of the capital gains if they satisfy the “two-year ownership and use” test, which requires the taxpayer(s) to live in and own the home for two of the previous five years. The two years does not have to be the same time frame for each test. For sales after a divorce, if the two-year ownership-and-use tests are met, you may both be able exclude up to $250,000 of gain on your individual returns. But if the tests aren’t met, the amount of exclusion will depend on how the home was used.
Retirement savings also need to be considered when filing after divorce. If a retirement fund, like a traditional 401(k), is cashed out, the IRS considers it taxable income. In order to make a tax-free transfer to a former spouse, a Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO) must be part of the divorce. The QDRO allows the taxpayer to transfer the proceeds to the (ex-)spouse’s retirement account or IRA tax-free.
Last, if you received a stimulus check, also known as an Economic Impact Payment, you should have received a Notice 1444 letter from the IRS stating the amount you received. If you filed your previous taxes as Married Filing Jointly, but are now separated, you should split the taxpayer amount ($2,400 for a joint return) into two payments of $1,200 for each taxpayer.
For more information, visit irs.gov and schedule an appointment today with a trusted Jackson Hewitt Tax Pro.